Usaco Dec10 Gold

Part of USACO Dec10

                           GOLD PROBLEMS
                  Three problems numbered 1 through 3

Problem 1: Cow Calisthenics [Michael Cohen, 2010]

Farmer John continues his never-ending quest to keep the cows fit
by having them exercise on various cow paths that run through the
pastures. These cow paths can be represented as a set of vertices
connected with bidirectional edges so that each pair of vertices
has exactly one simple path between them. In the abstract, their
layout bears a remarkable resemblance to a tree. Surprisingly, each
edge (as it winds its way through the pastures) has the same length.

For any given set of cow paths, the canny cows calculate the longest
possible distance between any pair of vertices on the set of cowpaths
and call it the pathlength. If they think this pathlength is too
large, they simply refuse to exercise at all.

Farmer John has mapped the paths and found V (2 <= V <= 100,000)
vertices, conveniently numbered from 1..V. In order to make shorter
cowpaths, he can block the path between any two vertices, thus
creating more sets of cow paths while reducing the pathlength of
both cowpath sets.

Starting from a single completely connected set of paths (which
have the properties of a tree), FJ can block S (1 <= S <= V-1)
paths, creating S+1 sets of paths. Your goal is to compute the best
paths he can create so that the largest pathlength of all those
sets is minimized.

Farmer John has a list of all V-1 edges in his tree, each described
by the two vertices A_i (1 <= A_i <= V) and B_i (1 <= B_i <= V; A_i
!= B_i) that it connects.

Consider this rather linear cowpath set (a tree with 7 vertices):


If FJ can block two paths, he might choose them to make a map like
           1---2 | 3---4 | 5---6---7

where the longest pathlength is 2, which would be the answer in
this case. He can do no better than this.

TIME LIMIT: 2 seconds


PROBLEM NAME: exercise


* Line 1: Two space separated integers: V and S

* Lines 2..V: Two space separated integers: A_i and B_i


7 2
6 7
3 4
6 5
1 2
3 2
4 5


* Line 1: A single integer that is the best maximum pathlength FJ can
        achieve with S blocks

SAMPLE OUTPUT (file exercise.out):



Problem 2: Big Macs Around the World [Sherry Wu, a classic, 2010]

Bessie is studying her favorite subject, Macroeconomics, in cowllege.
For her final project, she will be presenting research on exchange
rates between countries around the world.

In order to make her presentation more lively, she would like to
show the relative prices of Big Macs around the world, despite their
rather unsavory contents. To illustrate, suppose that Bessie would
like to find smallest value of a Big Mac in a country given its
value in some initial country and exchange rates from which other
country's values can be calculated (as illustrated below):

* A Big Mac is worth 60 dollars in the United States

* The exchange rate from US dollars to Canadian dollars is 0.2
  Canadian dollars per US dollar

* The exchange rate from US dollars to British Pounds is 5.00 British
  Pounds per US Dollar

* The exchange rate from British Pounds to Canadian dollars is 0.5
  Canadian dollars per British Pound

* The exchange rate between Canadian dollars to US dollars is 5.00
  US dollars per Canadian dollar

and Bessie would like to find the smallest possible value of a Big
Mac in Canada that can be obtained by exchanging currencies. There
are two ways:

* Going from US dollars directly to Canada dollars would yield a
  burger worth 60.00 US dollars * 0.2 Canadian dollars / US dollar
  = 12.00 Canadian dollars

* Going from US dollars to British Pounds to Canadian dollars would
  yield a burger worth 60.00 US$ * 5.00 GBP / 1 US$ * 0.5 C$ / 1
  GBP = 150.00 C$ (Canadian dollars).

Bessie would choose the former option, since she would much rather
pay 12.00 Canadian dollars instead of 150.00 Canadian dollars for
a Big Mac in Canada.

Bessie has N (1 <= N <= 2,000) countries conveniently labeled 1 to
N that she would like to consider along with a list of M (1 <= M
<= 25,000) exchange rates e_ij (0.1 < e_ij <= 10), each between
countries i and j (1 <= i <= N; 1 <= j <= N).

Given the value V (1 <= V <= 1,000,000,000,000), which is not
necessarily an integer, of the Big Mac in her starting country A
(1 <= A <= N), help her find the smallest possible value of a Big
Mac in country B (1 <= B <= N; B != A) after a series of currency
conversions. If there is no minimum, output 0.

It is guaranteed that the answer is, if not 0, between 1 and 10^15.

It is also guaranteed that, for any country's currency, it is
possible to get to any other country's currency.

TIME LIMIT: 2.0 seconds



* Line 1: Five space-separated numbers: N, M, V, A, B

* Lines 2..M+1: Three space-separated numbers: i, j, e_ij


3 4 60 1 2
1 2 0.2
1 3 5
3 2 0.5
2 1 5


* Line 1: A single positive number, the price of the Big Mac, with
        absolute or relative error at most 10^-6. If there is no
        minimum, output 0.

SAMPLE OUTPUT (file bigmac.out):



Problem 3: Threatening Letter [J. Kuipers, 2002]

FJ has had a terrible fight with his neighbor and wants to send him
a nasty letter, but wants to remain anonymous. As so many before
him have done, he plans to cut out printed letters and paste them
onto a sheet of paper. He has an infinite number of the most recent
issue of the Moo York Times that has N (1 <= N <= 50,000) uppercase
letters laid out in a long string (though read in as a series of
shorter strings). Likewise, he has a message he'd like to compose
that is a single long string of letters but that is read in as a
set of shorter strings.

Being lazy, he wants to make the smallest possible number of cuts.
FJ has a really great set of scissors that enables him to remove
any single-line snippet from the Moo York Times with one cut. He
notices that he can cut entire words or phrases with a single cut,
thus reducing his total number of cuts.

What is the minimum amount of cuts he has to make to construct his
letter of M (1 <= M <= 50,000) letters?

It is guaranteed that it is possible for FJ to complete his task.

Consider a 38 letter Moo York Times:


from which FJ wants to construct a 9 letter message:


These input lines represent a pair of strings:


Since "FOXDOG" exists in the newspaper, FJ can cut this piece out
and then get the last "DOG" by cutting out either instance of the
word "DOG".

Thus, he requires but two cuts.



* Line 1: Two space-separated integers: N and M

* Lines 2..?: N letters laid out on several input lines; this is the
        text of the one copy of the Moo York Times. Each line will
        have no more than 80 characters.

* Lines ?..?: M letters that are the text of FJ's letter. Each line
        will have no more than 80 characters.


38 9


* Line 1: The minimum number of cuts FJ has to make to create his

SAMPLE OUTPUT (file letter.out):


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